ASTM: (American Society for Testing
and Materials), founded in 1898, is a scientific and technical organization
formed for the development of standards on characteristics and performance of
materials and services. ASTM is the world's largest source of voluntary
consensus standards. ASTM operates through a system of committees and
subcommittees. Its committees function in prescribed field under regulations
that ensure balanced representation among producers, users, general interest and
consumer participants. ASTM standards govern the majority of testing performed
on motor oils in North America.
Test Number & Name: ASTM D-445 Standard Test Method for Kinematic
Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids.
Significance & Use:
The proper operation of equipment depends on the proper kinematic viscosity at
operating temperature of the oil used for its lubrication.
means: Kinematic viscosity is a measure of a liquid's flow under the
influence of gravity. It's handy to think of lubricant's kinematic viscosity as
it's "I.D. card." AMSOIL formulates its synthetic lubricants to tighter
viscosity limits than other manufacturers do, so AMSOIL synthetic lubricants'
kinematic viscosity's are midrange, close to neither the high or low limit. That
helps components work their best and helps the lubricants stay in grade.
Test Number & Name: ASTM D-2270 Standard Practice for Calculating
Viscosity Index from Kinematic Viscosity at 40°C and 100°C.
& Use: Viscosity index indicates how much a lubricant's viscosity will
change according to changes in temperature between 40°C (104°F) and 100°C
(212°F), which roughly define the normal temperature range of most
What it means: The smaller a lubricant's viscosity change
as a result of temperature change, the higher that lubricant's viscosity index.
High viscosity index lubricants, such as AMSOIL products, protect better in
operations with temperature variations.
COLD CRANK SIMULATOR APPARENT VISCOSITY
Test Number & Name: ASTM D-2602 Standard Test Method for Apparent
Viscosity of Engine Oils at Low Temperature Using the Cold-Cranking
Significance & Use: Apparent viscosity has been
established as a valid predictor of engine-cranking viscosities at specified low
temperatures. Apparent viscosity depends on temperature and shear
What it means: Cold cranking viscosity affects the startability
of engines and other equipment in cold temperatures. Low cold cranking
viscosities, such as those AMSOIL synthetic lubricants, make for easier cold
cranking and more dependable cold temperature starting.
BORDERLINE PUMPING TEMPERATURE
Test Number & Name: ASTM D-3829 Standard Test Method for
Predicting the Borderline Pumping Temperature of Engine Oil.
& Use: Borderline pumping temperature is a measure of the lowest
temperature at which an engine oil can be continuously and adequately supplied
to the components of an automotive engine.
What it means: The lower
the borderline pumping temperature, the lower the temperature in which the
engine is protected by circulating oil. AMSOIL synthetic motor oil's extremely
low borderline pumping temperatures assure excellent low temperature protection.
Test Number & Name: ASTM D-97 Standard Test Method for Pour Point
of Petroleum Oils.
Significance & Use: The test determines the
lowest temperature at which an oil flows as the jar is tilted for a prescribed
period. The pour point of an oil indicates the lowest temperature at which an
oil may be used in some applications.
What it means: the lower the
pour point, the more useful the lubricant is in cold temperatures. AMSOIL
synthetic lubricants offer exceptionally low pour points.
FLASH AND FIRE POINTS
Test Number & Name: ASTM D-92 Standard Test Method for Flash and
Fire Points by Cleveland Open Cup.
Significance & Use: Flash point
is the lowest temperature at which application of a flame causes specimen vapors
to ignite. Flash point is used to asses the overall hazard of a material and is
used in shipping and safety regulations to define "flammable" and "combustible"
Fire point is the lowest temperature at which a specimen sustains
burning for five seconds.
What it means: Lubricants with high flash
and fire points, such as AMSOIL synthetic lubricants, are safer to use and
transport than lubricants with lower ones and have a greater high temperature
Test Number & Name: ASTM D-5800 Determining the Evaporation Loss
of Lubricating Oils (Noack's Method)
Significance & Use: Test
determines the evaporation loss of lubricating oils at high temperature.
Evaporation loss is particularly important to motor and cylinder lubrication,
due to the high temperature of these operations and the tendency of evaporative
loss to increase in high temperatures. Significant evaporative loss of oil leads
to excessive oil consumption and destructive changes in oil
What it means: Lubricants with low Noack scores, such as
AMSOIL synthetic lubricants, lose less to volatility than lubricants with high
scores. Low-loss oils keep their original protective and performance qualities
longer than high-loss oils do, which keeps oil consumption low and fuel economy
and equipment protection high.
HIGH TEMPERATURE/HIGH SHEAR VISCOSITY
Test Number & Name: ASTM D-4683 Standard Test Method for Measuring
Viscosity at High Temperature and High Shear Rate by Tapered Bearing
Significance & Use: Viscosity at the shear rate and
temperature of this test is considered representative of the condition
encountered in the bearings of automotive engines in sever service. Lubricant
viscosity in the bearings of automotive engines in severe service is a critical
factor in bearing wear.
What it means: Lubricants with high scores,
such as AMSOIL synthetic lubricants, maintain their viscosity in high
temperatures after exposure to high shear. That means they continue to protect
engine bearing even after exposure to sever service conditions.
FOUR BALL WEAR TEST
Test Number and Name: ASTM D-4172B Standard Test Method for Wear
Preventive Characteristics of Lubricating Fluid (Four-Ball
Significance & Use: Test method determines the relative
wear preventive properties of lubricants in sliding contact under the test
conditions. Lubricant comparisons are made by comparing the average wear scars
on three fixed balls made by one ball in rotating contact with them in baths of
the test lubricants.
What it means: The smaller the average wear scar,
the better the protection. AMSOIL synthetic lubricants deliver much smaller wear
scars - and much better protection - than other lubricants do. The Four Ball
Wear Test may be conducted at various levels of severity. Independent laboratory
testing shows that AMSOIL Series 2000 and Series 3000 motor oils' wear scars are
significantly smaller than those of popular competitor oils in extremely severe
test conditions, making these oils ideal for extreme service engine operations.